Tag Archives: Living Forgotten Realms

The Next D&D Living Campaign: Living through Today’s Organized Play Challenges

Today we have our last article in the “D&D Next Living Campaign” series, this time by Teos Abadia. Stay tuned though, because on Thursday, we’ll be posting a podcast which also discusses this topic. I’ve started a forum thread over at the Wizards LFR forums to discuss some of these ideas. Feel free to weigh in there, or in the comments here, or both.

Organized play (OP) programs exist for two basic reasons. One is to create ways for gamers to come together. The RPGA (Role Playing Games Association) began with this purpose as a sort of club to create gaming opportunities (especially at conventions), mirroring groups that existed in the ‘70s for miniature war games. Another reason is to promote an RPG product and encourage sales. Both can involve money – the RPGA used to charge a membership and many companies promote OP campaigns to sell product. The goals often intertwine. For example, D&D Encounters does a great job at bringing disparate gamers together that would otherwise be unable to find a weekly game, all while making sure those gamers know about (and hopefully buy) the latest books. Continue reading

The Next D&D Living Campaign: A Newbie’s Perspective

The title says “a newbie’s perspective.” That’s not entirely accurate. Sarah Darkmagic is very involved in the D&D community, as a blogger, podcaster, and freelancer for Wizards of the Coast. She has DMed home campaigns. She has run “learn to play” sessions at conventions. She does not, however, participate in Living Forgotten Realms or Ashes of Athas. I thought I would reach out to her, and get her perspective. What could the next living campaign do to get players like her involved?

When Benoit asked me to write this post, I got nervous, real nervous. I started playing D&D just 3 years ago and my organized play experience is limited to non-LFR activities. Sure, I’ve run games at PAX East, GenCon, and DDXP, but I haven’t run or played anything from the living campaigns like LFR or Ashes of Athas. You might ask why I should write anything at all then. It’s a good question; one I asked myself. The reason I’m writing is that I want organized play to do well, actually, I want it to be even better. I honestly believe living campaigns are part of that. And, to me, they are one of the few D&D groups that still intimidate the hell out of me (and some of my friends) and I would love for it to not be that way. So these suggestions come from that perspective and an honest and caring heart. Continue reading

What I would like to see from the D&D Next Living Campaign

I’ve started a forum thread over at the Wizards LFR forums to discuss some of these ideas. Feel free to weigh in there, or in the comments here, or both.

My experience as a Writing Director for Living Greyhawk and Living Forgotten Realms has led me to have… let’s be nice and call them “perspectives” on things that current and past Organized Play efforts are doing right and could do better at, and as a new iteration of D&D almost certainly means a new Living Campaign, it’s time to make some of those “perspectives” known (especially since these jokers have given me a platform to do so): Continue reading

Thoughts On A 5th Edition Living Campaign

I’ve started a forum thread over at the Wizards LFR forums to discuss some of these ideas. Feel free to weigh in there, or in the comments here, or both.

When the guys at Roving Band of Misfits asked me to write a bit about “What Do You Want from a 5E Living Campaign?” at first I didn’t know if I really had much to say. Having spent the last decade administering Living campaigns, writing for Living campaigns, DMing Living games for campaigns, and generally observing things on the other side of the table from the players, I didn’t think that what I wanted in a new campaign really mattered. I have been steeping myself in Living campaigns (or their equivalents) for way too long, and years ago I recognized that personal preference is only one piece in a very large and complex puzzle. Continue reading

Hamblin’s 5E Living Campaign Wishlist

I’ve started a forum thread over at the Wizards LFR forums to discuss some of these ideas. Feel free to weigh in there, or in the comments here, or both.

With the announcement of D&D 5th Edition, we here at Roving Band of Misfits are thinking about all the changes the game has in store.  Since we have played a lot of Living campaigns (Living Greyhawk, Living Forgotten Realms, Ashes of Athas), we’re wondering what a 5E living campaign might look like.  Here’s my wishlist for what I would like to see in a 5E living campaign. Continue reading

What Will The 5th Edition Living Campaign Look Like?

I’ve started a forum thread over at the Wizards LFR forums to discuss some of these ideas. Feel free to weigh in there, or in the comments here, or both.

There’s been a lot of talk on the internet over the past week or so about what the 5th edition of D&D will look like. Here at Roving Band of Misfits, we’d like to take a different approach. If you listen to the podcast, you know that Hamblin and I play Living Forgotten Realms and Ashes of Athas. In the days of 3.5, we were involved in Living Greyhawk as well (I even co-wrote a couple of mods) and we may have dabbled in the Living Arcanis campaign. Hamblin has played LFR enough to have multiple characters, one of which is in epic tier, and we both retired characters from the LG campaign. All that to say, we’ve been around the living campaigns for quite a while, and on both sides of the screen. Continue reading

Creating an Investigative Adventure

Recently, I ran the Living Forgotten Realms adventure “Crafts” by Andrew Cowan (DRAG1-7) for my group. In running this adventure, I was surprised at the elegance with which the author presented the “investigative” part of the adventure, and wanted to share it so that others could benefit from it. Often, writing a good investigation is difficult because things get complicated quickly.  I think you’ll see that keeping it simple is best.

As you read this, you should keep in mind the following:

  • This is a Living Forgotten Realms (LFR) adventure, so the plot is pretty railroad-y. However, the organization that was used in the investigative part of the adventure can apply just as well (maybe even better!) to a sandbox game.
  • The investigation was framed as one big skill challenge spanning several locations and scenes. We’re not going to touch on that at all, but rather the planning and presentation of the information.
  • LFR adventures are written to be run by many different DMs, and often the adventure is “pick up” (i.e., not a lot of prep time for the DM). Clear presentation and common sense organization of the material are paramount to writing a good adventure, good plot notwithstanding.
  • Since I don’t know the author, I’m making some pretty big assumptions about the PROCESS involved in writing this. If the process that I present doesn’t suit you, that’s fine; use what works for you. What I’m really doing is pointing to the finished product as an example of a well organized investigative adventure.
  • I shouldn’t need to say this, but will anyway: there are spoilers involved here, so if you haven’t played “Crafts” and are planning to, go away and come back when you have.

With these things in mind, let’s look at how the investigation was organized and presented in this module.

The setup:

The PCs are contacted by some sisters from a local church, and asked to put a stop to the sale of a new drug in the city. The sisters’ temple has been caring for those going through the debilitating withdrawl of the drug, and has become overwhelmed with the number of new “patients.”  If the spread of the drug isn’t stopped soon, the city will soon succumb.

It is important to remember when creating an investigation that at some point, there needs to be a “bottleneck” of information; everything needs to point to one culprit.  Put another way, all paths of investigation need to lead to the conclusion.  Granted, one path may be a red herring (ONE), and some paths may take longer than others. There may even be some overlap. In the end though, the PCs need to be able to conclude their investigation.  There are no unsolveable crimes in D&D.  With that in mind, you need to start by deciding where the investigation will conclude.  This will make it much easier to draw “paths” to that conclusion.  In “Crafts” the conclusion is the compound where the drug lords reside.

From there, you start wherever the PCs will start, and work forwards.  Come up with several leads for the PCs to follow up on; they don’t have to be obvious, either.  For example, the PCs could talk to some of the patients to find out where they were buying the drug (obvious), or the PCs could try and find a dealer on their own (not as obvious).  Finally, they could check with the city watch and find out what they already know (some groups may not even think of this).  It’s important to spend some time brainstorming possible investigation paths that the players may think of.

After you have initial leads, the rest of the investigation is simply adding some dots to connect start with finish. In other words, you don’t want the first lead they follow up on to bring them directly to the drug lords’ doorstep.  So you add some more leads.  Let’s look at how the dots follow from the “find a drug dealer” lead:  Find a drug dealer >> Obtain a sample of the drug (or) ascertain the dealer’s supplier.  So we have another choice for the PCs to make, keeping in mind that, either way they go, they will be pointed to the conclusion.  Let’s follow the “Obtain a sample” lead: Obtain a sample of the drug >>  ascertain the drug’s ingredients.  At this point, the PCs really only have one choice that will produce results.  That’s good, because now we have a bottleneck.  From here, the PCs only have to trace the ingredients back to their source, the drug lords’ compound.

There are actually other bottlenecks in the investigation.  For example, talking to patients in the infirmary (one of the initial leads) points you to seeking out a drug dealer as well.  While the PCs followed a different initial lead, they are sent along the same path.  That’s a bottleneck – no matter what the PCs do, they should be pointed towards the conclusion.  The more of these overlaps you can come up with, the better.  If you can use the drug dealer encounter when the PCs choose lead one OR two, that’s one less encounter you need to write. 

When you’re ready to map out the investigation in your notes, there are several ways to do it.  You could draw a picture, or make an outline.  I prefer an outline, because you can type it and save it, but if you’re more graphically driven, a picture with circles and lines works fine too.  Here’s what our investigation might look like in outline form:

  1. Talk to Patients
    1. Go to 2.
  2. Find a Drug Dealer
    1. Obtain a sample
      1. Ascertain the ingredients
        1. Find merchants who deal in those ingredients
          1. Go to conclusion
    2. Ascertain the supplier
      1. Get inside the supplier’s house
        1. Go to 2A
        2. Go to conclusion (with appropriate skill checks)
  3. Talk to the city watch
    1. Go to 2Bi

Of course, this is the barest of outlines, and should be a kind of “Index” pointing you to more robust notes elsewhere.  There is all manner of information, and many skill checks not included in this outline.  As an aside, I always advocate putting more information in your notes than less.  That way, later you can come back to something you’ve done and re-skin it, or possibly use it again as is.  It’s tempting to only include the outline in your notes, and rely on your memory for the rest because that’s less work.  However, you will most certainly forget the details in a year or two, and when that happens, the bare outline will require you to do the work of fleshing it out all over again.

Hopefully, I’ve given you a starting point for writing investigations.  I’m sure there are other ways of doing them, but what I saw in this adventure really made a lot of sense to me, and helped me to write my own.  If anyone else has tips, or a different way of doing them, feel free to leave advice in the comments!

Adding Continuity to your Living Forgotten Realms Campaign

One of the often heard complaints about Living Forgotten Realms (LFR) is the lack of coherence when playing modules.  There isn’t an overarching storyline within the campaign (that I know of, anyways), and the availability of the modules for any given level of play forces characters to travel extensively.  This creates a sort of “jet lag” for players, evidenced by the common comment “where are we again?”

For example, any given region in LFR currently has only two Heroic Tier 1 (H1) modules available for play.  After that, in order to continue adventuring in the level 1-4 range, it becomes necessary for characters to travel to another region.  Assuming 3 modules per level, a character will have travelled to six different regions by the time they reach level 5, not counting core modules.

Am I against travel?  Of course not.  Setting aside the DM’s difficulties of being well versed in all of Faerun’s cultures, I think it’s great that PCs get to travel all over and “see the world” as it were.  The problem for me comes when you trace the travels of any given party; it looks a little like something my three year old might draw: a meandering line that crisscrosses the continent with no direction or purpose.  And direction and purpose is exactly what every campaign needs.

Now, I know that there are storylines within every region that tie several modules together.  Unfortunately, those storylines often span several tiers of play, so once you’ve played “part 1” of the story at H1, you have to wait until level 4 (at the earliest) to play “part 2.”  By that time, the players, and probably the DM, are sitting around trying to remember what happened in the first module.  Not exactly the most efficient way to tell a story.

So, is there a solution to this problem?  Or does playing LFR sentence you to a “campaign” that feels like a string of one-shot adventures?

The solutions

I must backpedal a bit here, and apologize if I’ve made the campaign look like it was not well thought out.  There are legitimate problems, in my opinion, with the way “story series” span several tiers, and the lack of an overarching campaign-wide plot, which I mentioned above.  However, the campaign has a few features built into it that are meant to address the disjointed feeling that sometimes results from playing LFR.

The first is MyRealms adventures.  This is a kind of “make up your own campaign” option.  As long as characters and adventures are created according to the campaign rules, a DM can basically make up his own campaign that is totally LFR compliant.  Just to be clear, the rules specifically state that only the DM who makes a MyRealms adventure can run it.  This is a great option for people who want to adventure in the Realms, be a part of the living campaign, and want to make up their own storyline.

The second is Quest Cards.  The campaign has published quest cards with associated tasks that will unlock a special module.  The tasks can be fulfilled in specific, predetermined modules spread across Fearun.  Let’s face it, sending your players on a quest can give them a good reason to be trekking across the continent.  As they travel through a region in search of the next quest item, they complete “side quests.”  These side quests are basically just published modules for whatever region they’re travelling through.  Right now, this is the technique I’m using for my group.  They all received the Zhentarim quest card, and have begun pursuing leads that I’ve peppered into existing modules.  They’ve only completed one quest task so far, but they have played through five modules since they received the quest.  My plan is to make sure they’re the appropriate level by the time they unlock the quest conclusion, “Black Cloaks and Bitter Rivalries.”  Unfortunately, right now, there are only two quest cards available (that I know of), and if anyone is listening, I’d love to see more official quests.  For now, the alternative is creating your own quests, then adding task fulfillment randomly to existing modules, and using MyRealms to conclude them.  In my opinion, quests are the best way to lend purpose to the LFR campaign.

The third way the campaign has provided for continuity is through the Adaptables and the Mini Campaign.  Granted, these are only for level 1 characters, but if you need a good starting point, you could either play through the adaptables or the mini campaign.  The adaptables are basically the sample adventure in the Forgotten Realms Campaign Guide followed by The Scepter Tower of Spellgard (they take place in the same general area), and an adventure from one of the Dungeon Magazines.   The mini campaign is a fun series of adventures that take place on Returned Abeir, which is far west of Faerun.  Where you go after using the adaptables (or mini campaign) is up to your players, but I would recommend making use of quests at that point.

 With that, I would like to announce a new feature to the site.  If you check out the menu bar, you’ll see there is now an “LFR Modules” tab.  Click on that, and you’ll be taken to a map of Faerun that clearly outlines the areas of the world that have pre-published modules available.  Below that is also a spreadsheet listing every module available for play.  I developed this page as I was trying to figure out which modules the players should do next as they travelled across the Realms, and decided to share it so others could make use of it.  If you want the characters’ travels to be more linear, and make more sense, it’s the place to start.

 Special thanks goes out to LFR Oxford whose list of LFR modules was my starting point; they also have lots of other information about LFR modules and quests that I don’t.  You should check them out.

 

I hope you find it useful; it’s a permanent addition to the site, so bookmark it and come back as often as you need to!

Dungeon Accessories: Making and Using a Portal

This entry is part of a series wherein I show how to use Hirst Arts molds to make new dungeon accessories for your 3D terrain of choice.  If you don’t have any Hirst Arts molds, that’s no problem.  At the bottom of the article you’ll find a bunch of ways you can use the accessory as the centerpiece for an encounter or story arc; you don’t need the actual accessory to use the ideas.  So feel free to read the whole article, or just zip to the bottom, and get your creative juices jumpstarted!

 From the Forgotten Realms Campaign Guide p.54:

“On Toril, magic portals link diverse places in various ways.  Most portals are simple teleportation devices that whisk travelers between distant locales, possibly even on other planes.  Others allow or limit passage based on the designer’s criteria.  All portals are created for a reason, but they often last longer than their creators, so a portal’s purpose can be lost to time.”

Ah, portals.  Nothing inspires curiosity more than a random doorway standing all alone in the middle of a room (or a field, for that matter).  At the same time, nothing inspires caution (and a bit of dread) in the same way either.  Whether your intentions are simply faster travel for your PCs or something more nefarious, every campaign could use a portal.

There are several ways to make an open doorway, from plain blocks to arches to using a completely different medium altogether (like Basswood), and the decision will largely be informed by the feel you’re going for.  A plain block doorway feels utilitarian, arches feel formal, and wood feels earthy.

I may do some other portals in the future, but we’re going to start by using Hirst Arts blocks, and following the plans laid out by Bruce Hirst himself on his own website, with a few tweaks to suit the look we want to end up with.

To start, we only need two molds – 201 and 45.  If you have a different floor mold, that’s fine, as long as it has those little tiny triangles in it.  If you’re anything like me, you probably won’t need to do any casting because you have the pieces for this lying around already.  But if you do need to cast, you only need to cast each mold three times.

First, we’re going to put together the base.  You’ll use a full sized floor square (1″x1″) and two half sized floor pieces (1/2″x1″) as well as two of the tiny triangles.  Glue them together like this:

Portal Base

While that’s drying, you’ll follow numbers 3 and 4 in the Basic Set Pieces setion from the Hirst Arts site (scroll down, you’ll see it…) to make the archway, with the following changes:

  • On either side of the pillars, you’ll use ¼” blocks, not ½”
  • There will be 2 ¾” blocks resting on top of the pillars on either side of the arch.
  • (If you’re confused by this, scroll down for a picture of the completed portal.

 Let it all dry overnight.

Next, you’ll glue the doorway to the base, and add 3 ½ size floor pieces to the top of the archway.

Finished portal

Still not painted

 Paint it, and you’re done!!  What’s that? You’re feeling like an overachiever today?  No problem, let’s take it a step farther. 

  • Make another doorway, just like the one above.
  • Get some colored cellophane.
  • Carefully glue some to the back of one of the doorways.
  • Glue the second doorway to the back of the first, so that they’re facing out in opposite directions.

This second portal has a bigger footprint in your floorplan, but the colored cellophane really conveys the idea that this isn’t any ordinary doorway.  It also encourages entry from either side, which opens up all sorts of possibilities as well.

Either way you decide to go, here are some ideas to help you come up with a way to use the portal in your campaign:

  • Read about Keyed, Restricted, and Variable portals in the Forgotten Realms Campaign Guide, pages 54 and 55.
  • Is the portal functioning or broken?
  • Where does it lead?
  • How can the characters find out either of these things?
  • If it’s broken, is there a way to fix it?
  • If it’s broken, does it malfunction in some way, or just not function at all?
  • Who made the portal and why?
  • Do the characters need a key or password to make the portal function?
  • What happens if a character tries to enter the portal from the back?
  • Does anyone else know about the portal, or use it on a regular basis?
  • Is there something that needs to happen to trigger the portal to turn “on”?
  • Save Versus Death has this idea for a trapped portal.  Scroll down until you find “Portal of the Six Curses.”

What other things should be considered when inserting a portal into a campaign?  Have you ever used one in your campaign?

Living Greyhawk vs. Living Forgotten Realms: Where’s the debate?

I am willing to face the truth: I am way too late to the “D&D 3.5 vs. 4.0.” debate to be relevant.  Plenty has been said, and I certainly don’t feel as though I can add any original perspective, especially two years in.

It’s interesting to me that, while plenty of people have compared the two versions at length, there aren’t many (if any) side by side comparisons of the two living campaigns that were played in each edition.  Living Greyhawk (LG) in version 3.5, and Living Forgotten Realms (LFR) in 4.0.  Yes, I realize there were, and are, other supported living campaigns, but these have been the heavyweights.

After a good bit of play time on both sides of the screen, in both campaigns, I’d like to offer a side by side comparison.

Regional Flavor

This is a big one for me, and I suspect others as well.  The structure of the Living Greyhawk campaign demanded that, in order to play a module (adventure) from a specific region, you had to actually go to the area of the real world that corresponded to that region of Greyhawk.  So, for example, if you wanted your PC to adventure in Bissel (a region in Greyhawk), you, the player, had to physically travel to New England to play those modules.  This resulted in players who played modules mostly based in one area of the game world because you mostly played near home.  Since the people you played with most often and the modules you played most often were from the same area of the game world, there was a very tangible and widely understood local regional culture, history, and government that DMs and players alike bought into.  Each region had its own traditions, laws, and believe it or not, inside jokes. 

The upsides to this are twofold.  First, it fostered a vibrant convention community.  If you desired to play a module in Geoff, you would go to a convention in the Virginia/Maryland/DC area.  That was the only way to play Geoff modules.  As a result, you get very well attended cons.  Second, there was greater immersion in the game world.  Just like you innately understand your local culture, but find foreign cultures, well, foreign, traveling to different areas of the game world produced very different play experiences.  Why? As mentioned before, all the local people (in the physical world) understood the local culture (in the game world) and played accordingly.  Travelling to a convention and adventuring in Keoland actually felt very different from adventuring in your home area of the Bandit Kingdoms.  And that’s how it should be.

Living Forgotten Realms made a lame attempt at this type of organization by assigning regions of Faerun to the real world.  However, there are no consequences for travelling, and access to modules is restricted in no way.  Result?  Everyone plays everywhere equally, and in theory, for a DM to bring regional flavor of any kind to a module, he will have to be well versed in every single region of the Forgotten Realms.  Not only is that not realistic, but I’ve never seen it in actual play.  All the regions, in my play experience, feel the same.  And that’s a shame.

There is a downside to the Greyhawk style of living campaign organization though, which is discussed in the next section.

Advantage: Living Greyhawk

PC Access to the Campaign World

As discussed in the regional flavor section above, players who wanted their PC to travel within the game world had to physically travel in the real world to accomplish that.  While the upsides were a vibrant convention community and tangible local flavor, the downside was restricted access to a majority of the campaign, especially if you didn’t have the time, money, or inclination to travel.  There were literally hundreds of modules produced in the Living Greyhawk campaign that I never got to play, not because I didn’t want to, but because I wasn’t allowed to.  Well, I guess I was allowed to, technically, if I wanted to become a world traveler.  There was also a wide swath of the game world that I knew almost nothing about.  That can be a pro or a con, depending upon your personal opinion, but it certainly would have been nice to be given a choice.

Advantage: Living Forgotten Realms

Treasure

It’s difficult to adjudicate treasure in a living campaign.  I get that.  There’s no DM to hand out items that fit perfectly to each character.  There’s even a really good chance that at any given table, there’s more than one person who wants a found magic item.  That results in arguments and hard feelings on a more frequent basis than you would encounter in a home game.  To avoid this, neither campaign used the “there’s only one magic sword to go around” technique found in home games, which I think everyone appreciated.  LG used an “access” system.  You never got a found magic item for “free,” but rather gained “access” to buy it.  While this did solve the problem of player fights, it wasn’t a lot of fun to find boots of speed, and realize you couldn’t have them for another 10 mods until you saved up enough cash.  I think the bundle system in LFR is not only ingenious, but solves both of the above problems.  Not only can more than one person have the same item, but you get the item to use right away. 

Advantage: Living Forgotten Realms

Module Play Restrictions

This one’s easy.  LG only allowed players to play each module once.  LFR allows characters to play each module once.  If a group didn’t have anyone local to run a new module for them, someone had to “eat” the mod by running it without playing it, thereby disqualifying himself from playing it in the future.  LFR has no such restriction.  The relaxing of this rule was like a breath of fresh air.

Advantage: Living Forgotten Realms

Bookkeeping

Being that I am an accountant by trade, one might think I enjoy the bookkeeping aspect of a Living Campaign.  I will admit that I do enjoy it to a certain extent.  However, when I have to subtract upkeep at the end of every mod, it begins to feel a bit like monkey work, especially since the upkeep costs didn’t scale.  At 15th level, you were still paying the same 12 gold for upkeep that you were at level 1.  Then, on top of that, keeping track of TUs (time units), favors, and any curses that might be in effect… well, bookkeeping in Living Greyhawk got to be a bit onerous.  Add to that the fact that each module you played was tracked on a full sheet, and you had players who walked around with two inch binders (or bigger) per character.  Just for paperwork.

In Living Forgotten Realms, each character’s career can be tracked on a few spreadsheet-style sheets of paper, and maybe a short stack of favors, if you’re so inclined to cash in on those types of things.  (Favors can also be tracked on the same spreadsheet paper by simply writing down the favor name, thus eliminating the need to keep your slips).  For my 6th level character, I keep a character sheet, and one other sheet of paper to track mods played.  That’s it.  No binder. 

With LFR’s item rarity rules coming out any day now, I anticipate maybe one more sheet of paper to keep track of my magic items, and when/where I got them.  While the bookkeeping for that may add another straw to the proverbial camel’s back, it still won’t measure up to the bookkeeping demanded by Living Greyhawk.

Advantage: Living Forgotten Realms

It’s certainly apparent that the LFR campaign really looked at what was broken about LG, and worked to fix it.  Overall, I feel that those efforts were successful.  They really loosened up the onerous rules that were aimed at simulation without really adding anything fun, and cut a lot of the fat out.  Its real failing, in my opinion, has been in the lack of regional flavor.  Unfortunately, for me, this is a biggie.  As stated above, LG had distinct regions, each with a distinct feel.  In Living Forgotten Realms, all the modules could be set in the same city and surrounding countryside, and I wouldn’t notice.  I realize that there is a catch 22 here; to gain regional flavor, you have to restrict PC access to other regions, or at least entice them to adventure primarily in their own region in some way.  That’s what fosters the regional flavor.  But by doing this, you’re also restricting play opportunities and failing to showcase the campaign world as a whole.  To be honest, I’m not sure what the answer to that problem is, if there is one at all.  But then, that’s not really my job.  Now that we’re several years into the campaign, I am interested to see if the campaign admins propose a solution.